TSARS of the FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE. ORIGINS, KHANS jeanne de Constantinople: Princesse de Flandre et de Hainaut PDF the BULGARS 802-852, PRINCES and TSARS of the BULGARIANS 802-971.
Jeanne de Constantinople (1200-1244), fille d’un empereur croisé, hérite des comtés de Flandre et de Hainaut. Âgée d’à peine quinze ans, la comtesse se retrouve seule à la tête de l’une des plus puissantes principautés d’Europe. Au coeur des complots, des impostures et des guerres civiles, elle se révèle un grand personnage d’État, fascinant. Elle transforme les institutions, renforce la place des femmes dans la société et dans l’Église, et soutient les artistes – une partie du cycle du Graal lui est d’ailleurs dédiée. Rédigé par une vingtaine de spécialistes, Jeanne de Constantinople, comtesse de Flandre et de Hainaut nous présente une femme qui fut, tour à tour, détestée et adulée, et nous montre son univers, son action dans toutes ses dimensions : politique, sociale, culturelle, artistique et littéraire. Femme et seigneur d’exception, Jeanne de Constantinople surprend encore aujourd’hui.
PRINCES of the BULGARIANS 852-, TSARS of the BULGARIANS 913-971. TSARS of the SECOND BULGARIAN EMPIRE. RIVAL TSARS of the BULGARIANS 1258-1322. The state of Bulgaria is recorded as independent during three distinct periods. Early Byzantine sources record details of relations with Bulgaria during the 8th century, but only from the Byzantine perspective and mainly limited to military campaigns. The names of certain Bulgarian leaders are recorded in those sources, but the information is insufficient to reconstruct ruling families in Bulgaria at that time.
Krum established himself as khan of the Bulgars in and was the ancestor of the family which formed the first Bulgarian empire. His activities are recorded in Byzantine and Frankish sources although, as will be seen below, sources which confirm the precise family relationships between the early khans have not yet been identified. The history of the early Bulgarian khanate was a constant struggle for regional power between Bulgaria and Byzantium. The second Bulgarian empire was established in 1186 after a rebellion against Byzantine rule which was led by the brothers Ivan Asen and Peter. Tsar Kalojan was crowned king of Bulgaria with a papal crown in 1204. Members of the Asen family ruled Bulgaria until 1257, but their influence was considerably weakened after the accession of the minors Koloman I and Mihail II Asen which followed the death of Tsar Ivan Asen II in 1241. The successful reconstruction of the families of the Bulgarian rulers is hampered by the almost complete absence of surviving autochtonic Bulgarian primary sources.
The result is that reliance must be placed almost exclusively on Byzantine sources, whose main priority was recording events from the Byzantine perspective and which were not generally concerned with accurately reporting relationships in the Bulgarian royal families. He established himself as Khan of the Bulgars by 802. After defeating the Avars in 805, he united Pannonia to eastern Bulgaria. After a crushing defeat by the invading Byzantine army which sacked Pliska, the Bulgarian capital, Krum fled to the mountains where he was able to encircle the pursuing invaders and kill Emperor Nikephoros 26 Jul 811. Apart from his military achievements, he is remembered for promulgating the first law code of the Bulgarian state, although the text has not survived. He succeeded as Khan of the Bulgars.
He switched his military attention away from Byzantium towards expanding his territory to the north-west. He pressed well into Pannonia, expelling the local Slav chiefs and installing Bulgar governors in 827. He persecuted Christians whom he saw as a threat to the traditional Bulgar way of life. The name of Swiniza’s wife is not known. He succeeded in 836 as Khan of the Bulgars, until 852. After the peace treaty with Byzantium expired in 846, the Bulgars invaded Macedonia along the Struma river. The name of Presian’s wife is not known.