Grand Dauphin – Google Art Project. Louis XIV, King of France, and philippe Ier: 1060-1108 Père de Louis VI PDF spouse, Maria Theresa of Spain.
Philippe Ier exerce le plus long règne de la dynastie capétienne. Deux événements majeurs bouleversent alors la France et l’Europe: la conquête de l’Angleterre par Guillaume de Normandie et la première croissade. En même temps, naît un vaste rayonnement culturel qui, pendant deux siècle, met le France médiévale à la tête des Arts et des lettres. Indolent et voluptueux, ce monarque connaît une vie conjugale difficile qui défraie la chronique. Son union avec Bertrade de Montfort, déjà mariée, provoque son excommunication pendant quatorze ans, ce qui l’isole de son peuple ainsi que des et turbulents feudataires du royaume. A la fin de son règne tumultueux, il abandonne le pouvoir aux mains de son fils impétueux, Louis VI le Gros.
Philippe Ier, Grandes chroniques de France, XIVe Siècle
Louis was born on 1 November 1661 at the Château de Fontainebleau, the eldest son of the young French King, Louis XIV of France, and his Spanish wife, Maria Theresa of Spain . He was initially under the care of royal governesses, among them being Julie d’Angennes and Louise de Prie de La Mothe-Houdancourt. When Louis reached the age of seven, he was removed from the care of women and placed in the society of men. Louis XIV secretly nursed the same suspicious jealousy of the Grand Dauphin that Louis XIII had once shown to himself. No prince could have been less deserving of such feelings. Monseigneur, as the heir to the throne was now known, had inherited his mother’s docility and low intelligence. All his life he remained petrified with admiration of his formidable father and stood in fear of him even while lavish proofs of ‘affection’ were showered upon him.
Louis XIV saw to it that his son’s upbringing was quite the opposite of his own. Instead of a devoted mother and an affectionate and likeable tutor, the Dauphin had the repellent and misanthropic Duc de Montausier, who ruthlessly applied the same methods that had so disturbed Louis XIII. Bossuet overwhelmed his backward pupil with such splendid lessons that the Dauphin developed a lasting horror of books, learning and history. By the age of eighteen, Monseigneur had assimilated almost none of the knowledge amassed to so little purpose, and the apathy of his mind was second only to that of his senses. It was said that when Louis was an adult, he could pass a whole day simply tapping his cane against his foot in an armchair. Nonetheless, his generosity, affability, and liberality gave him great popularity in Paris and with the French people in general.
Louis was one of six legitimate children of his parents. Like his father he enjoyed the hunt, but that was about the only way in which this disappointing son resembled his father. Louis was engaged to his second cousin, Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, when he was seven. She was a year older than Louis and, upon arriving at the French court, was described as being very unattractive. Nonetheless, she was a very cultured princess, and made initially a good impression upon her arrival as she was able to speak French fluently. Although he was permitted at first to attend and later to participate in the Conseil d’en haut, Louis did not play an important part in French politics.
Nonetheless, as the heir to the throne, he was constantly surrounded by cabals battling for future prominence. Louis is said to have hunted wolves to extinction in the Île-de-France. During the War of the Grand Alliance, he was sent in 1688 to the Rhineland front. Europe, so that when I come to die it will not be noticed that the King is dead.
There Louis succeeded, under the tutelage of Marshal de Duras and Vauban, in taking one of the bridgeheads across the Rhine, Philippsburg, which was surrounded by marshes. I shall not compliment you because you are brave. But I rejoice with you that you have been liberal, generous, humane, and have recognised the services of those who did well. Louis’ capture of Philippsburg prevented the large gathering Imperial army from crossing the Rhine and invading Alsace.
Louis’s position in the Conseil d’en haut gave him an opportunity to have his voice heard in the years and crises leading up to the War of the Spanish Succession. From his mother, Louis had rights and claims to the Spanish throne. Louis died of smallpox on 11 April 1711, at the age of 49, predeceasing his father. Louis married Duchess Maria Anna of Bavaria on 7 March 1680.
She was known in France as Dauphine Marie Anne Victoire. Although the marriage was not a close one, the couple had three sons. Thus, through Burgundy and Anjou, Louis ensured the continuation of the senior Bourbon line on the throne of France and the establishment of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty respectively. Legend has it that a prophecy told at his birth said that Louis would be « son of a king, father of a king, but never a king ». This was thought to be fulfilled as he was the son of Louis XIV of France and father of Philip V of Spain, but did not himself become king. This section does not cite any sources. Philip IV of Spain and Élisabeth of France.
Prince Louis were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Robertian, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house. Louis is a member of the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians. Louis’ patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son. It follows the Bourbon-Vendôme, the Kings of France, and the Counts of Paris and Worms. Navarre, Spain and Two-Sicilies, Dukes of Parma and Grand-Dukes of Luxembourg, Princes of Orléans and Emperors of Brazil. It is one of the oldest in Europe.